ECG is recommended for the detection of cardiac conduction disease. Disorders of unknown cause VACTERL is an acronym for vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac malformation, tracheo-esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, renal anomalies, and limb anomalies. It has previously been advocated that a baseline, preconception, unbound free AED level, repeated at the beginning of each trimester and in the last four weeks of pregnancy, should be the minimum level of monitoring. Pregnancy Management Pregnant women with HOS who have a known history of a structural cardiac defect or cardiac conduction abnormality should be followed by a multidisciplinary team including a cardiologist during pregnancy. Furthermore, valproate is now considered not to be angeschaltet AED of choice for women with epilepsy of child-bearing years. Using first trimester seizure control as the reference, seizure control was found to be unchanged throughout pregnancy in Prevalence HOS is the most common of the heart-hand syndromes.
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